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Consanguineal or lineal kinship

Consanguinitykinship characterized by the sharing of common ancestors. Kin are of two basic kinds: consanguineous sharing common ancestors and affinal related by marriage.

In some societies other pairs of individuals also treat each other as relatives—for example, the wives of a pair of brothers, relatives by adoptionand godparent s who have special kinlike relationships fictive kin. Consanguineous kinship is a universal type; it includes those with common ancestors and excludes individuals who lack ancestors in common.

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In the modern sense, consanguinity is a genetic concept. From a strictly biological point of view, the term is inappropriate as are the terms mixed blood and good bloodbecause the genetic contributions of ancestors are not passed on to their descendants as blood but through genes contained in the chromosome s located in cell nuclei.

Chromosomes are composed of nucleic acid s DNAor deoxyribonucleic acid and protein s. From a genetic perspective, consanguinity influences the probabilities of specific combinations of genetic characteristics called genotype s.

Consanguinity results in the inheritance, from common ancestors of both parents, of transmissible capacities to synthesize and control nucleic acids and proteins, the essential substances of all organisms.

Consanguineous relatives are defined within various degrees, according to the likelihood of their sharing genetic potentialities from common ancestors. Thus, pairs of brothers and sisters siblings all have the same ancestors, whereas pairs of first cousins who are not otherwise related share only one-half of their ancestors.

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A child inherits only about one-half of the coded information from each parent; hence, a pair of brothers or sisters have about half of their chromosomal constitution in common. The doubt about the exact fraction is due to the chance element in its transmission during meiosisthe cell division that produces sperm and egg, each possessing a haploid number of chromosomes. Genetically the degree of consanguinity of siblings is the same as that between a parent and child, and both are termed consanguineous in the first degree.

An aunt or uncle shares with a niece or nephew about half the chance of common inheritance of a pair of siblings; thus, aunts and uncles may be termed consanguineous kin of the second degree.

Following this logic, first cousins who have one-eighth of their genes in common are referred to as consanguineous kin of the third degree. A great-grandparent and great-grandchild are genetically related to the same degree as a pair of first cousins.

The grandparent is, however, a lineal kinsman, whereas the cousin is collateral kin. In genetics the degree of consanguinity is the sole factor of significance, but in various communities social relationships also are important in discriminating between collateral and lineal types of relationship. Likewise, biological attributes such as age and birth order often influence social attitudes and behaviour. In fact, consanguineous kin of various degrees, and even nonconsanguineous kin, may be addressed by the same term and treated similarly by custom or law the term unclefor instance, may be applied to a granduncle or to the husband of an aunt.

A major application of data on consanguinity reflects the probability that two individuals of known degree of consanguinity to another individual will share the traits of that person.Click to see full answer.

Keeping this in view, what is Affinal and consanguineous kinship?

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Kin are of two basic kinds: consanguineous sharing common ancestors and affinal related by marriage. Consanguineous kinship is a universal type; it includes those with common ancestors and excludes individuals who lack ancestors in common.

In the modern sense, consanguinity is a genetic concept. Also Know, what are the three types of kinship?

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These three types of kinship are: Consanguineal: This kinship is based on blood—or birth: the relationship between parents and children as well as siblings, says the Sociology Group. Affinal: This kinship is based on marriage. It is one of the basic social institutions found in every society.

This institution establishes relationships between individuals and groups. Thus, the institution of kinship refers to a set of relationships and relatives formed thereof, based on blood relationships consanguinealor marriage affinal. In anthropologykinship is the web of social relationships that form an important part of the lives of all humans in all societies, although its exact meanings even within this discipline are often debated.

Consanguineal kins. Affinal kins: Those related to each other through marital relationship are called affinal kins or affines. Those who are related to each other by 'blood' are known as consanguineal kin or cognates and the relationship based on blood-ties is called consanguineous same blood kinship. What is the example of kinship? The definition of kinship is a family relationship or other close relationship. An example of kinship is the relationship between two brothers.

What are the different kinds of kinship? What are the functions of kinship? Kinship has several importance in a social structure.

consanguineal or lineal kinship

Kinship decides who can marry with whom and where marital relationships are taboo. It determines the rights and obligations of the members in all the sacraments and religious practices from birth to death in family life. What is kinship usage?

Kinship usage assigns guidelines for interactions among persons in these social groupings. It defines proper, acceptable role relationships, say, between father and daughter, between brother and sister, between young son-in-law and mother-in-law, etc. Kinship usage thus acts as a regulator of social life.

What are kinship words? Kinship terms are words used in a speech community to identify relationships between individuals in a family or a kinship unit.

consanguineal or lineal kinship

A classification of persons related through kinship in a particular language or culture is called a kinship system. What is kinship and family? Kinship And Family. Kinship is a culture's system of recognized family roles and relationships that define the obligations, rights, and boundaries of interaction among the members of a self-recognizing group.

Kinship systems range in size from a single, nuclear-family to tribal or intertribal relationships. What is the meaning of kinship by blood? What is the meaning of kinship by marriage? Synonyms: affinity. Related Words.

consanguineal or lineal kinship

Why do we study kinship?A cousin marriage is a marriage where the spouses are cousins i. The practice was common in earlier times, and continues to be common in some societies today, though in some jurisdictions such marriages are prohibited. In some cultures and communities, cousin marriages are considered ideal and are actively encouraged and expected; in others, they are seen as incestuous and are subject to social stigma and taboo.

Cousin marriage was historically practised by indigenous cultures in AustraliaNorth AmericaSouth Americaand Polynesia. Different religions have ranged from prohibiting up to sixth cousins from marrying some forms of Hinduism and Catholicism to freely allowing first cousin marriage ProtestantismIslam and Judaism.

In some jurisdictions, cousin marriage is legally prohibited : for example, in ChinaTaiwanNorth KoreaSouth Koreathe Philippines and 24 of the 50 United States. Supporters of cousin marriage where it is banned may view the prohibition as discrimination[6] [7] while opponents may appeal to moral or other arguments.

Opinions vary widely as to the merits of the practice. Children of first-cousin marriages have an increased risk of autosomal recessive genetic disordersand this risk is higher in populations that are already highly ethnically similar. The prevalence of first-cousin marriage in Western countries has declined since the 19th century.

Cousin marriage has often been practised to keep cultural values intact, preserve family wealth, maintain geographic proximity, keep tradition, strengthen family ties, and maintain family structure or a closer relationship between the wife and her in-laws. Many such marriages are arranged see also pages on arranged marriage in the Indian subcontinentarranged marriages in Pakistanand arranged marriages in Japan. Confucius described marriage as "the union of two surnames, in friendship and in love".

Some men also practiced sororate marriagethat is, a marriage to a former wife's sister or a polygynous marriage to both sisters. This would have the effect of eliminating parallel-cousin marriage as an option, but would leave cross-cousin marriage acceptable.

Legal Definition of Consanguinity

However, enforcement proved difficult and by the subsequent Qing Dynasty, the former laws had been restored. The following is a Chinese poem by Po Chu-yi A.

Anthropologist Francis Hsu described mother's brother's daughter MBD as being the most preferred type of Chinese cousin marriage, mother's sister's daughter MSD as being tolerated, and father's brother's daughter FBD as being disfavored.

In Chinese culture, these patrilineal ties are most important in determining the closeness of a relation. Finally, one reason that MBD marriage is often most common may be the typically greater emotional warmth between a man and his mother's side of the family.

Cousin marriage has been allowed throughout the Middle East for all recorded history. Raphael Patai reports that in central Arabia, no relaxation of a man's right to the father's brother's daughter, seems to have taken place in the past hundred years before his work. Here the girl is not forced to marry her male cousin, but she cannot marry another unless he gives consent.

When the marriage procession progressed with the bride toward the house of the bridegroom, the male cousin rushed forward, snatched away the girl, and forced her into his own house. This was regarded by all as a lawful marriage.Before you start this lesson, be sure you have read, and have available to you, pp. Kinship terminology can reveal many things about the culture, including its descent system, and provides other clues as to the role of kinship in that culture. Since kinship groups are critical groups in horticultural and pastoral societies, it is vital to understand kin groups.

Kinship terminology is simply the way people classify kin, the categories they create, and the terms they use. It turns out that humans in various cultures use only a few systems of classification although many languages. These systems of classification recognize or don't recognize certain possible categories.

This can provide many clues regarding the values of the culture and the role of kinship in that culture. In this as in looking at descent systems, the emphasis is on what anthropologists call consanguineal kin. Consanguineal kin or consanguines are relatives related "by blood" to use the common but inaccurate English termmeaning those people with whom you share known common ancestors, however distant. Affinal kinor affines, are relatives by marriage or your in-laws; if the marriage ends, they are no longer affines.

You will need to know the basis of three terminology systems: the Inuit Eskimo or lineal systemthe Hawaiian or generational systemand the Iroquois system the major variant of a bifurcate merging system.

As you look at these three systems, remember that each term indicates a status with respect to Ego. Calling people by the same kin term the "uncle" term in English also means that Ego considers them to be equally related.

Though we do not usually think about it, the term we choose that our culture has chosen for us for a particular category of kin recognizes, or ignores, certain attributes of the person, or of how we trace relationship to that person.

These categories are as follows:. Since the Inuit or Eskimo terminology system always distinguishes ego's lineal as opposed to collateral relatives, it is commonly referred to in anthropology as the lineal system.

Descent Approach to the Study of Kinship

Check this system in the text; it should look familiar to you as the United States is one of cultures, and English one of the languages, which has this system.

What you need to note is that Ego is concerned not only with the sex of the relative and the generation of the relative, but the sex of the relative or relatives through whom he is tracing the relationship. On the diagram above, this is clearly represented at the level of first cousins.

The reason why Ego should call some of his first cousins the same kin term as his brother and sister is something for a later lesson, but the assumption would be that Ego expects the same role from his parallel cousins as he does from his actual brother and sister. In cross cousins, the parent through whom the relationship is traced must be the opposite sex of the sibling: that is, father's sisters' kids and mother's brothers' kids are cross cousins. Concern over the sex of the people through whom the relationship is traced is found at all generations in bifurcate merging systems.

This is the most common of all terminology systems. Again, it is important to realize that calling relatives the same kin term probably means that the same role is expected of everyone called that term. Exactly what that role is vs a vs ego will probably vary from one culture to another. Kinship Terminology Systems Before you start this lesson, be sure you have read, and have available to you, pp. These categories are as follows: Sex : Most cultures, in the term that must be chosen to refer to a relative, force you to distinguish the sex of the relative.

In almost every single case, the kin term will let the listener know what sex the relative is: if I write about my aunt, you know I am talking about a female. As you look at the three charts in the text, note that sex is almost always recognized. One exception is in our own system: at the level of cousins, we do not distinguish between males and females in the kin term "cousin".

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This might easily generate a question: how important are people we call cousins? What is their role in relationship to us? What do we expect of them? What would we do for them?Consanguinity "blood relation", from Latin consanguinitas is the property of being from the same kinship as another person. In that aspect, consanguinity is the quality of being descended from the same ancestor as another person.

The laws of many jurisdictions set out the degree of consanguinity in relation to prohibited sexual relations and marriage parties. Such rules are also used to determine heirs of an estate according to statutes that govern intestate succession, which vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. In some places and times, cousin marriage is approved and expected; in others, it is taboo as incest. The degree of relative consanguinity can be illustrated with a consanguinity table in which each level of lineal consanguinity generation or meiosis appears as a row, and individuals with a collaterally consanguineous relationship share the same row.

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The degree of kinship between two people may give raise to several legal issues. Some laws prohibit sexual relations between closely related people, referred to as incestuous. Laws may also bar marriage between closely related people, which are almost universally prohibited to the second degree of consanguinity.

Some jurisdictions forbid marriage between first cousinswhile others do not. Marriage with aunts and uncles avunculate marriage is legal in several countries. Consanguinity is also relevant to inheritance, particularly with regard to intestate succession. In general, laws tend to favor inheritance by persons closely related to the deceased. Some jurisdictions ban citizens from service on a jury on the basis of consanguinity and also affinity with persons involved in the case.

In many countries, laws prohibiting nepotism ban employment of, or certain kinds of contracts with, the near relations of public officers or employees. Particular churches. Juridic persons. Philosophy, theology, and fundamental theory of Catholic canon law.

Juridic and physical persons. Associations of the faithful. Institute of consecrated life. Society of apostolic life. Under Roman civil lawwhich early canon law of the Catholic Church followed, couples were forbidden to marry if they were within four degrees of consanguinity. They had to either defy the church's position or look elsewhere for eligible marriage candidates. Afterthe general rule was that while fourth cousins could marry without dispensation, generally the need for dispensations was greatly reduced.

The connotations of degree of consanguinity varies by context, though most cultures define a degree of consanguinity within which sexual interrelationships are regarded as incestuous or the " prohibited degree of kinship ".

Kinship Terminology Systems

Among the Christian Habesha highlanders of Ethiopia and Eritrea the predominantly orthodox Christian Amhara and Tigray-Tigrinyait is a tradition to be able to recount one's paternal ancestors at least seven generations away starting from early childhood, because "those with a common patrilineal ancestor less than seven generations away are considered 'brother and sister' and may not marry. This rule does not apply to Muslims or other ethnic groups.

The Quran at —24 states. Financial incentives to discourage consanguineous marriages exist in some countries: mandatory premarital screening for inherited blood disorders exist in the UAE sinceQatar inwhere couples with positive results will not receive their marriage grant.The relation subsisting among all the different persons descending from the same stock or common ancestor. Some portion of the blood of the common ancestor flows through the veins of all his descendants, and though mixed with the blood flowing from many other families, yet it constitutes the kindred or alliance by blood between any two of the individuals.

This relation by blood is of two kinds; lineal and collateral. Lineal consanguinity is that relation which exists among persons, where one is descended from the otheras between the son and the father or the grandfather, and so upwards in a direct ascending line; and between the father and the son or the grandson, and so downwards in a direct descending line.

Every generation in this direct course makes a degree, computing either in the ascending or descending line. This being the natural mode of computing the degrees of lineal consanguinity, it has been adopted by the civil, the canon, and the common law. Collateral consanguinity is the relation subsisting among persons who descend from the same common ancestor, but not from each other. It is essential to constitute this relation, that they spring from the same common root or stock, but in different branches.

The mode of computing the degrees is to discover the common ancestor and, beginning with him to reckon downwards, so the degree the two persons, or the more remote of them, is distant from the ancestor is the degree of kindred subsisting between them.

For instance, two brothers are related to each other in the first degree because from the father to each of them is one degree. An uncle and a nephew are related to each other in the second degree, because the nephew is two degrees distant from the common ancestor, and the rule of computation is extended to the remotest degrees of collateral relationship.

This is the mode of computation by the common and canon law. The method of computing by the civil law is to begin at either of the persons in question and count up to the common ancestor, and then downwards to the other person, calling it a degree for each person, both ascending and descending, and the degrees they stand from each other is the degree in which they stand related. Thus, from a nephew to his father is one degree; to the grandfather, two degrees and then to the uncle, three; which points out the relationship.

The mode of the civil law is preferable, for it points out the actual degree of kindred in all cases; by the mode adopted by the common law different relations may stand in the same degree. The uncle and nephew stand related in the second degree by the common law, as are two first cousins or two sons of two brothers.

But by the civil law the uncle and nephew are in the third degree and the cousins are in the fourth. However, the mode of computation is immaterial as both will establish the same person to be the heir.Affinal kin are individuals who are related to you by marriage. Unlike blood relatives, affinal relations are based upon a legality or contract. Although they are considered to be members of your family, the kinship tie can be broken if the marriage dissolves, rendering you no longer related to the individual in question.

In the event one of your biological parents marries, his spouse becomes your stepparent. For example, if your biological father gets married, his wife is then your stepmother. Likewise, any children of the new spouse become your stepbrothers and stepsisters -- not to be confused with half-siblings, who share one biological parent. If you marry an individual who already has children, those children become your affinal kin. For example, if a man marries a woman with a young son, the man then becomes the stepfather to the child, and the child is the man's stepson.

Although you do not share any blood, entering the marriage makes you legally related to your new spouse's children. When you enter into a marriage, your spouse's family also become your affinal kin, in this case in-laws. Your spouse's father becomes your father-in-law, and you become his daughter- or son-in-law. In-law relationships are not restricted to the nuclear family alone, but include the entire family.

For example, your spouse's uncle becomes your uncle-in-law, and you become his niece- or nephew-in-law. Nieces and nephews refer to your siblings' children, and these are blood relatives. For example if your brother has a daughter, that child is your niece.

But children of your spouse's siblings are your nieces and nephews as well. These nieces and nephews are your affinal kin. Jessica Wright has been writing since By: Jessica Wright.


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